Land managers in the Southeast have traditionally set fire to low vegetation in their pine forests every few years, chiefly during the winter months. Recently a variety of ecological considerations has generated interest in burning during the growing season in longleaf pine stands; but many experienced managers have expressed concern about the safety and effectiveness of summer burning. To assist forest managers facing practical decisions about when to conduct burning in their longleaf stands, this publication summarizes many of the principal insights provided to date by scientific research findings on the effects of season of burn on longleaf ecosystems.