Cultural treatments applied in established pine stands are called intermediate stand management practices. These are often desirable or necessary to improve survival and growth rate of crop trees. No standard schedule can be suggested for intermediate cultural activities. Their application is affected by such factors as stocking, growth rate, site quality, competition, and products to be harvested from the stand. Such activities as release, precommercial and commercial thinning, prescribed burning, pruning, timber stand improvement, and supplemental fertilization are among the intermediate stand management options which may be applied to protect woodlands and improve economic returns.