The Balsam Woolly Adelgid

The balsam woolly adelgid is a tiny insect that has made a major impact on the dark, cool forests of Fraser fir on the highest mountain peaks of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid has now spread throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, including Fraser fir, which is the dominant Christmas tree species produced in western North Carolina.


People are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of the bats they once persecuted. Increased pesticide use, the loss of roosting and foraging habitat has resulted in the current decline of many bat species. North Carolina supports 16 species of bats, including three federally listed as endangered. This publication provides information about bats, their benefits, and steps to encourage bats on private lands.

Before You Sell Your Timber

Years of growth are accumulated in a mature timber stand. The annual income from all those years is frequently marketed in a single transaction. Too much is at stake to sell timber without having accurate knowledge of products, volume, and value and without knowing how to establish the next crop for continued production.

Black Bear

Black bears are present in the southern Appalachian Mountains and the coastal bays and swamps of North Carolina. The best habitat is provided in old forests dominated by hardwoods containing a variety of mast-producing tree and shrub species. Bears typically require extensive, rugged country with dense thickets, swamps, bays, or rock outcrops, and room to travel widely with little contact with agriculture or livestock production areas. Bears occasionally will cause damage in livestock operations, apple orchards, cornfields or by feeding on the inner bark of some desired tree species.

Bobwhite Quail

Bobwhite Quail (Northern Bobwhite) is a popular game bird. Good habitat requires an interspersion or mixture of woodlands, brush, grass, and croplands. Quail are social birds that gather in groups called “coveys.” As many as 10 to 30 birds may form a covey in which they forage and roost closely together.

Building Songbird Boxes

Building songbird boxes is a simple, inexpensive way to attract songbirds to your property. This fact sheet discusses how to build, install, and maintain nest boxes successfully.

Butterflies in Your Backyard

Butterfly watching, though unlikely to match the widespread popularity of bird watching, has gained significant favor in recent years. Butterflies are colorful, diverse, abundant, and active during the day in warm months, making them an ideal pursuit for wildlife watchers. In fact, wildlife watching as a whole, given impetus by the increased awareness of regional and ecological diversity, has become one of this country’s fastest-growing outdoor recreational activities.

Construction and Tree Protection

Protecting trees during construction can yield big rewards. Planning and prevention are the keys to success. Achieve the best results by taking action to prevent tree damage during site development and construction.

A Consumer's Guide to Consulting Foresters

Professional foresters can provide landowners with management assistance that will increase the value and productivity of their forested acreage. More than 60 percent of North Carolina is forested, but much of this valuable resource is poorly managed or not managed at all. Many forest landowners are not aware of the benefits that can be derived from a properly managed forest—extra money from the sale of timber products, improved wildlife habitat, aesthetics, recreation, and pride in ownership. Consulting foresters are one of several sources of assistance for landowners who are interested in managing their woodlands.

Cottontail Rabbit

Cottontails live throughout the South from bottomlands and marshes to the highest mountain balds. They thrive in openings wherever shrubs, grasses, and forbs dominate. Cottontails are commonly found in old homesites, abandoned orchards, broom sedge fields, sumac patches, honeysuckle thickets, and brush piles.

Crop Tree Management in North Carolina

Landowners today are interested in forest management that promotes environmental stewardship and produces multiple benefits. Crop tree management can do just that. This system is designed for use in timber stands of adequate quality, but which are either not ready for final harvest and regeneration or belong to landowners who place high value on continuing stand management.

Developing Wildlife-Friendly Pine Plantations

Wildlife benefit landowners in many ways. Some people enjoy luring deer, rabbits, turkey, and bobwhite quail to their property. Some like to hunt game. Others simply enjoy watching the animals in their natural habitats. When it comes to attracting wildlife, the owners of pine plantations have a special challenge. Without proper management, most plantations lose much of their plant and animal diversity as they age.

Drought Sales of Timber

During periods of drought some farmers view timber sales as a way to improve their cash flow. Selling timber during periods of economic distress is a good way to generate income, but it is important to realize that such sales may also result in a tax liability. The amount of liability depends on the sales volume, the basis or cost of the timber sold, and the seller’s other taxable income as a farmer.

Drought Tolerant Trees for the Southeast

You can be sure that all plants need water. However, some plants are able to resist drought better than others. The means by which plants cope with drought varies considerably and impacts how we should use these plants in the landscape. Some plant are "drought tolerant" simply due to an extensive root system, but will suffer if planted where the roots are restricted in the landscape or reduced during transplanting. Other plants are able to conserve water due to limited leaf areas, have leaves that prevent water loss, or can tolerate extreme dehydration.

Eastern Gray Squirrel

The gray squirrel thrives in both urban and rural settings. Of the seven species of squirrels native to North Carolina, the gray is the most common.

Endangered Species

Numerous species native to the U.S. are threatened with extinction, and have been classified as “endangered” or “threatened” by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission.

Estimating the Volume of a Standing Tree Using a Scale (Biltmore) Stick

The volume of wood in a tree and the type of product made from the wood are based primarily on the tree’s height and diameter. One of the basic tools for estimating the height and diameter of standing trees is a calibrated 25-inch scale stick, often referred to as a Biltmore stick or a cruiser’s stick. With practice, this instrument can be used to provide a reliable estimate of tree height and diameter, which then can be used to determine tree volume. This publication is for those interested in learning how to estimate tree volume and the type of product the tree may provide.

Federal Income Taxes for Timber Growers

Three fourths of North Carolina’s commercial timber is owned by individuals with little expertise in tax law accounting. Every year at income tax time, these growers face an extra challenge—the task of dealing with a complex set of federal tax laws governing timber ownership. Understanding some of the intricacies of tax law can help timber owners minimize their tax liability. They can learn how to establish complete records for each tract of timber, how to choose the best method of selling their timber, and how to take advantage of all deductions and tax incentives permitted by law.

Financial Incentives for Forest Management

Managing your forestland can be an excellent long-term investment. Over the years, income from managed timber stands has exceeded that from most other crops in terms of value added per acre per year. Even managed pre-salable timber stands have increased the property value of forestland substantially over bare or unmanaged, cutover woodland. Annual returns from 0 to 40 percent are possible from forest management. The range of returns is wide because of variations in soil productivity, stand condition, tree species, markets (both availability and price fluctuations), intensity of management, and availability of financial incentives.

Firewise Landscaping in North Carolina

Do you live in a home or community that is tucked into the woods or surrounded by marsh or shrubs? Then your home may be at risk of exposure to wildfire. You can use firewise landscaping practices to create a survivable space around your home and reduce your risk of damage from a wildfire.

First… See a Forester

More than 60 percent of North Carolina is forested, but much of this valuable resource is not actively managed. Properly managed forests can generate extra money from the sale of timber products; improve wildlife habitat, aesthetics, recreation, and water quality; and increase land value. By seeking the assistance of a professional forester, you can maximize the return on your forestlands.

Forest Health—Community Wealth: A Landowner’s Guide for Enhancing Forests in Western North Carolina

Is your forest all it could be? If you have recently acquired forested acreage in western North Carolina or have never considered the potential of your forest and would like to learn more about how to enhance your property, take some time to work through this guide. It has been developed for forest landowners like you, who may want multiple benefits from their land, such as natural beauty, recreational opportunities, wildlife, and income. Even if you’ve lived here for many years, a plan for your forest is a wise investment for your future.

Forest Soils and Site Index

Soil quality is the most important factor in forest management decisions. Soils will determine which tree species yield the greatest timber volume, the time to harvest, and ultimately, the investment a landowner must make to yield an acceptable economic return from forest management.

Forest Stewardship: Planning for Beauty and Diversity

People own forestland for a variety of reasons. Some think of their land primarily in terms of timber production or investment potential. Others value the land primarily for its recreational or aesthetic value. Frequently, landowners seek a combination of benefits, using the land for wildlife habitat and recreation as well as a source of income from timber production. At the same time, most owners want to be good stewards of the land they own—that is, they want to protect and enhance their forest resources.

Growing Pears in North Carolina

In North Carolina, pears are not a big crop, primarily because of the many problems which beset the growers. While pear culture is somewhat similar to apple culture, several factors inhibit pear production. Nevertheless, there are quite a few roadside market growers of pears primarily in the apple-producing areas of the state.

Herbaceous Plants for Wildlife

Herbaceous plants are typically sun-loving, non-woody plants that occupy fields, road-sides and clearings. While common in large openings, they may be a limiting factor to woodland wildlife, particularly wild turkey and ruffed grouse. This publication describes methods for maintaining and establishing these valuable sources of food and cover for wildlife.

How do You Own Your Property?

Knowing how you own your property is one of the first steps in estate planning. Forms of property ownership can affect how and when property passes to your spouse, your children, and others with an interest in your estate.

Hummingbirds and Butterflies

Backyards and other small areas may have a limited value when managing for larger species like deer, but they are extremely valuable for many other species. With planning and a little work, these areas can easily be managed to benefit nectar-seekers such as hummingbirds and butterflies. By promoting plant species and habitat components that are beneficial to hummingbirds and butterflies, you can insure their colorful presence. This publication highlights key steps to protect and provide the important habitat areas needed by hummingbirds and butterflies.

Identifying Tree Diseases

The disease profiles in this manual are organized by type and describe the hosts, symptoms and signs, life-cycle, and management of their respective diseases. Diagnostic photographs are included.

An Information Guide to Forest and Wildlife Management

Have you ever wanted information about diseases, economics, forest management, grazing, harvesting, insects, reforestation, site preparation, soils, taxes, thinning, tree identification or wildlife management? Maybe you are a woodland owner wanting to improve your ability to manage your woodlot in a more productive manner. Or, maybe you need some publications, a slide set or film for a forestry, wildlife, natural resources or youth meeting. Often knowing where to get the information may be a bigger problem than knowing what you want.

An Introduction to Forest Certification

Forests provide aesthetic, ecological, economic, recreational, and spiritual values to society. When people see trees harvested, they may need assurance that the harvest is not “destroying” the forest. Forest certifi cation reassures them with a third-party evaluation of the management of a particular forest, assuring the public that the benefi ts and functions of the forest, including clean air and water, wildlife and plant habitat, soil protection, recreation, and more, are enhanced or protected during management and harvest.

Land Ownership, Liability, and the Law in North Carolina

A change in North Carolina law makes it possible for landowners to open their lands with less concern about liability in case of an accident or mishap. It is now possible for landowners to allow the public on their property for educational and recreational reasons, when no fee is charged. Under these circumstances, a landowner is required to provide the duty of care owed to a trespasser. The following note explains the major laws impacting landowners’ liability in North Carolina and the responsibilities landowners have for invited and uninvited users of their property.

Landscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants

North Carolina’s native plants provide well-adapted food and cover for North Carolina’s native animals, and a well-planned landscape of native plants can help you attract a diversity of wildlife to your property. Native North Carolina plants also are well-suited to the state’s soils and climate and require relatively little upkeep, once established on an appropriate site. However, the spread of exotic plants poses a threat to native plants and animals of North Carolina. This publication describes the problems associated with some exotic plants and presents a detailed list of native plants that may be used in place of these foreign ornamentals to attract wildlife to your property.

Low-Cost Habitat Improvements

Managing for wildlife involves the maintenance and enhancement of the food, water, and cover components necessary for healthy populations. The smaller habitats that abound on private lands and in many backyards can be enhanced using a variety of improvement options. Wildlife improvements can be simple, inexpensive and fun for the whole family. This publication discusses selected low-cost habitat improvements that will enhance food and cover for wildlife on private lands.

Maintaining Forest Property Boundaries

With the high value of timbered forest property today, landowners would be well-advised to take sufficient steps to protect their investment. Maintaining property lines and boundaries is one of the simplest, yet most often overlooked forms of protection from theft, trespass, and encroachment. The publication details the importance of property lines and how to maintain or reestablish them.

Maintaining the Forestry Exemption Under the Sedimentation Pollution Control Act

The North Carolina Sedimentation Pollution Control Act was passed in 1973. Its purpose is to prevent sediment from reaching streams by requiring the installation and maintenance of adequate sediment control measures during site-disturbing activities. The initial law provided a blanket exemption for agriculture and forestry. The 1989 North Carolina legislature amended the Sedimentation Pollution Control Act. The amendment maintains the forestry exemption but only on the condition that site-disturbing forestry activities be conducted in accordance with Forest Practices Guidelines.

Management by Objectives: Successful Forest Planning

You’ll be more successful with your forest property if you manage it according to a clear plan. Whether you grow trees, tulips or turkeys, a management plan helps save time and money while increasing returns and enjoyment. Therefore, the clearer your destination (or objectives), the greater chance for success.

Managing Beaver Ponds

Once nearly eliminated in North Carolina, beavers have returned to most of the state's watersheds through 50 years of restocking. Although beavers are negatively viewed in some situations due to the flooding and girdling of trees, their presence may ultimately be beneficial. This publication reviews benefits of beavers and methods to manage and enhance beaver ponds.

Managing Edges for Wildlife

Edges (or ecotones) are areas where two habitat types meet, such as a forest and a meadow. Edges also occur between different aged patches of the same habitat type. Edges occur naturally where there are abrupt changes in soil characteristics or where fire or severe wind destroy part of a forest, but most edges are created by human activities, such as agriculture or timber harvest.

Managing for Hardwood

Forestry is one of the top three industries in North Carolina, where approximately 62 percent of the state's 32.2 million acres are forested. Approximately 67 percent of the forest land consists of hardwood or mixed pine-hardwood. Benefits from hardwood forests include watershed protection, wildlife, timber, recreation, and aesthetics. Increased demand for hardwood, due to tighter controls on federal lands and the hardwood exports, has increased the need for management of existing hardwood stands.

Mourning Dove

Mourning doves are the most abundant game bird in the Southeast. Requiring open or semi-open lands, doves are primarily farm game birds that thrive where grain crops are grown. Doves can travel considerable distances in search of food, water, and gravel, but prefer easy access to them. Because the dove is a migratory species, local habitat conditions generally do not limit the population, nor will manipulation of the environment increase populations.

New Reporting Rules for Lump-Sum Timber Sales

On May 28, 2009, new rules for reporting of lump-sum timber sales went into effect. The changes require purchasers of standing timber in a lump-sum transaction to report the sale or exchange of the timber to the IRS using IRS Form 1099-S and to provide the completed form to the seller.

North Carolina’s Forestry Present-Use Valuation (PUV) Property Tax Program

Qualified North Carolina owners of soundly managed commercial forestland have been eligible for property tax reductions since 1974 through the state’s forestry present-use property tax program. To be eligible for Forestry Present Use Valuation, qualified forestland must be actively engaged in the commercial growing of trees under sound management (NC General Statues 105 277.2- 277.7). Commercial growing of trees will entail a harvest as a thinning, partial, or complete harvest of trees (as prescribed in the forest management plan filed with the county tax office).

Nutrition Management for Longleaf Pinestraw

Demand for pinestraw for use as mulch continues to rise dramatically. This demand has put considerable pressure on existing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) stands due to frequent removal of pinestraw. While the sale of straw represents a financial opportunity for some private timberland owners, it can be a potential problem because of the repeated removal of nutrients from raked sites.


Owls are birds of prey that actively feed and hunt throughout the night and during twilight hours. Often mysterious to man, owls figure largely in myths, folklore and superstition. Their large eyes, nocturnal nature and eerie calls have led to fear and loathing by many. Owls play an important role in the balance of forest and open land environments. Much like hawks, owls prey on rodent, reptile and small game populations at night.

Plant Trees and Wildlife Cover Under the Conservation Reserve Program!

The 1985 Farm Bill includes a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) expected to retire up to 45 million acres nationwide of highly erodible, marginal cropland over the next 5 years. Landowners may retire cropland to trees, permanent wildlife habitat, permanent introduced grasses and legumes, permanent native grasses and legumes or combinations of permanent covers. Consolidated Farm Service Agency (CFSA) will reimburse up to 50% of the cost of establishing permanent covers and will pay an annual rental fee over a ten year period to participating landowners.

Planting Your New Stewardship Forest

Are you getting ready to plant your land in trees following a recent harvest, land purchase, or inheritance? This publication explains how simple changes in planting design can benefit wildlife, timber, and plant diversity… and your bottom line. Your rewards can be great and last for decades; all it takes is a little planning before the first tree goes into the ground.

Pools for Amphibians

North Carolina supports the greatest diversity of amphibians in the United States, some 79 species. Amphibians include frogs, toads, and salamanders. They are unique animals that use lungs, gills, and their skin for breathing. The majority of North Carolina’s amphibians live a part of their lives in water or depend on moist environments for breeding, egg-laying, and survival. However, due to habitat losses and degradation, along with increased air and water pollution, 25% of these species are currently in various levels of decline.

Practicing Forestry Under Local Regulations

As North Carolina’s population expands, more and more forestland disappears, converted to residential, retail, industrial, and other nonforestry uses. The challenge of managing conflicts between forestry and nonforestry uses falls to local governments, especially as trees and other vegetative buffers are cleared. As trees are removed, perceived and real environmental impacts may bring about restrictive or prescriptive land use regulations. This publication examines tree protection regulations, zoning, and other ordinances. Guidance is offered on how to practice forestry under existing regulations and on how involvement in the community can retain forestry as a viable land use.

Preserving the Past: A Guide for North Carolina Landowners

As a landowner, you probably know of your responsibility to protect and preserve soil productivity, water quality, biological diversity, and wildlife habitat. But you may not be aware of other valuable resources potentially on your property: archeological artifacts, historic structures and landscapes, and culturally important vegetation. These are known collectively as cultural resources, and this publication will help you learn more about identifying, protecting, and conserving these resources on your land through the creation of a preservation plan.

Producing Firewood from Your Woodlot

A century ago wood supplied most of North Carolina's energy. That share dwindled to less than one percent as energy consumption increased but people switched to coal, oil, and natural gas (much of it used in production of electricity). In the 1970s, steep price increases for nonrenewable fossil fuels led to renewed interest in firewood for domestic heat.

Producing Longleaf Pine Straw

Longleaf pine trees deposit a blanket of needles, often called pine straw, on the forest floor annually. Many forest owners do not realize that it is possible to sell this straw, but in fact wise management of this resource can substantially increase the owner’s income from the forest land. Retail sales of North Carolina longleaf pine straw in 1996 were estimated to exceed $25 million. This volume could easily be doubled or tripled if owners were more aware of this opportunity and if the market were expanded by promoting sales in states to our north.

Producing Shiitake Mushrooms: A Guide for Small-Scale Outdoor Cultivation on Logs

The two most popular mushrooms in the world are the common button mushroom (Agaricus species) and the shiitake or black forest mushroom (Lentinus edodes). Until recently, only imported, dried shiitake mushrooms could be purchased in the United States. Shiitake mushroom production began in this country about 15 years ago, and with it came a new demand for fresh mushrooms. The demand is increasing rapidly as consumers discover the delicious, meaty flavor of fresh shiitake mushrooms. With these mushrooms commanding an average wholesale price of $4 to $5 a pound, thousands of farmers and investors across the country are interested in producing them.

Producing Tree Fruit for Home Use

Growing tree fruit in the home garden or yard can be a rewarding pasttime. However, careful planning, preparation, and care of the trees are essential for success. This publication tells you what to consider before planting, how to plant your trees, and how to take care of them to ensure many seasons of enjoyment.

Pruning Woodland Trees

Pruning woodland trees can improve timber value, appearance, access, and remove dead and diseased branchwood. Although branch shedding or self-pruning occurs naturally, landowners often have objectives that can be enhanced or expedited by artificial pruning. Natural-target pruning is a proven technique for removing branches that avoids discolored or decaying wood associated with other pruning methods. This Woodland Owner Note describes when and how to natural-target prune young pines and hardwoods for timber production.


Raccoons use a wide variety of habitats, but generally prefer areas interspersed with different successional stages of growth. Bottomland hardwoods provide hard mast, insects, and aquatic animal life. Fields and open areas yield fruit, berries, insects, and occasional small mammals and reptiles. Raccoons depend on wetland and aquatic habitats for a large portion of their food and are seldom found far from water.

Recommended Trees for Urban Landscapes

The following list of recommended trees includes a variety of plants that have demonstrated particular resistance to harsh growing conditions, diseases, and insects in North Carolina. It should be emphasized, however, that even these trees have their limits. No single species is suited for all sites, and consideration should be given to soil conditions, local occurrence of diseases and insects, microclimate, hardiness zone, and mature tree size when selecting any plant.

Recreational Forest Trails: Plan for Success

Trails offer relatively low-cost access to natural surroundings and require only minor maintenance when properly constructed. This note explores proven ways to plan, construct, and interpret various types of recreational forest trails.

Reforestation of North Carolina’s Pines

The Southern pines may reproduce themselves more successfully in most cases when special efforts are made to encourage regeneration. But first, owners should allow time to begin planning reforestation well in advance of the harvest cut. Such problems as understory vegetation control, site or seedbed preparation, and source of seed or seedlings must all be examined. Either artificial regeneration that involves planting seed or seedlings, or natural regeneration which relies on existing seedlings or seeds may be used. The practice of “letting nature take its course” often results in poor stands of low quality hardwood.

Restoration of Wetlands Under the Wetlands Reserve Program

The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is a national program authorized by the 1990 Farm Bill. WRP is a voluntary opportunity offering landowners a chance to receive payments for restoring and protecting wetlands on their property through the establishment of permanent, or (possibly) thirty-year, conservation easements. This Woodland Owner Note has been revised to help North Carolina landowners understand the provisions of the 1995 Wetlands Reserve Program.

Riparian Buffers

A riparian buffer is vegetated land adjacent to a stream or water body. The vegetation benefits water quality and habitat by helping to regulate temperature, add organic matter (leaves and twigs), assist in pollution reduction and provide wildlife habitat.

Ruffed Grouse

The Ruffed Grouse is a major upland game bird found primarily in the Appalachians and the Cumberland Plateau. Usually found above 2,000 feet in the southern portion of their range, they have also been found at lower elevations.

Selling Your Timber? Don’t Make an Uninformed Decision!

It is risky to sell timber without having a good idea of its value and the current market conditions. Do what the pros do—sell your timber using a registered forester! Selling timber is like trading stocks and bonds. Seek sound professional advice and assistance to know when and how to sell.

Site Preparation Methods and Contracts

Most commercially valuable tree species found in North Carolina require full or almost full sunlight for seed germination, establishment and early growth. For regeneration to succeed, remove competing trees, weeds and brush or else reduce their density Such steps must be taken before planting or before pines or hardwoods can regenerate naturally To do this, several alternative site preparation methods are available to landowners. Which method(s) is selected will depend on the type, composition and density of the competition.

Snags and Downed Logs

A snag is a standing dead or dying tree, and a downed log is a log that is lying on or near the forest floor. Snags, logs, and woody debris are natural occurrences in mature forests. Trees can be killed by lightning, storm breakage, fire, disease, insects, or a variety of other factors. Resource managers are becoming more aware of the importance of snags and rotting, downed logs as wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, forest practices such as shorter rotations, firewood removal, timber stand improvement and insect and disease control efforts have limited the number of snags and downed logs available for wildlife habitat. Creating and protecting them in the forest is a simple, low cost habitat improvement that has great benefits for a wide range of wildlife species.


Snakes range in size from a few inches to more than 8 feet. They cause no property damage, but seeing a snake or its shed skin may frighten some people.


At least 100 species of songbirds nest in the Southeast, with many additional species overwintering or passing through as migrants. Habitat requirements differ by species, and can generally be grouped into the successional stage(s) where songbirds thrive.

Steps to Successful Pine Plantings

Successful pine plantings require a well-prepared site, quality seedlings, proper storage and field care of seedlings, and timely planting by a crew trained in proper planting techniques. Most landowners contract with a vendor for such services. This note gives information on (1) key clauses to include in any contract and (2) conditions which affect seedling survival and early growth.

Thinning Pine Stands

Thinning is the cutting or removal of certain trees from a stand to regulate the number, quality, and distribution of the remaining “crop” trees. If the cut material can be marketed, the thinning is “commercial.” Where markets do not exist for the removed trees (usually because they are too small), the thinning is considered “precommercial.”

Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in North Carolina

Ticks have long been pests of humans and animals in North Carolina. From the larval to the adult stages, ticks attach to a living host and feed on the host’s blood. In doing so, they may transmit germs that cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever or Lyme disease, both of which can have serious consequences for humans. This publication will help you identify the several species of ticks found in North Carolina and the diseases they transmit. It also describes ways you can protect yourself from ticks outdoors and control ticks in your home.

Timber Sale Agreements

A timber sale often involves a substantial sum of money, not to mention that such a sale is something the typical landowner does infrequently. Anyone considering a timber sale should not rely on personal judgement, but should confer, instead, with a forester or an attorney experienced in timber sales.

Tree Planting Guide

Most homeowners plant trees for their beauty, but a well-situated tree also can reduce energy costs by shading a house from the sun’s rays in summer and providing shelter from harsh winter winds. They act as noise buffers, and provide homes for wildlife, making your home a more pleasant place to live. Proper selection and planting are critical to ensure your new tree’s long-term survival. This guide will help you select and plant trees.

Understanding Forestry Terms: A Glossary for Private Landowners

In discussing forestland management and everyday forest operations, you will often hear and read words and phrases that are unique to the natural resources professions. You will also encounter some common terms that have special meanings when applied to forestry. This publication lists and defines more than 150 forest resource terms to help you in conversing with others about forestry matters and in making informed decisions about your forestland.

Urban Trees for Use Under Utility Lines

Selecting trees for use under utility lines presents a unique challenge. It is often desirable to have trees that are large enough to provide shade, architectural effects, and ornamental features, all without interfering with overhead utility lines.

Using a Compass and Pacing

A compass and pacing can be useful in many different woodlot activities. A compass can indicate the direction you are headed relative to magnetic north, and pacing is a simple means of measuring linear distance by walking. Combining the use of a compass with pacing will help you as you travel across country or traversing property boundaries.

Voluntary Conservation Options for Land Protection in North Carolina

Landowners share a deep connection to their land and the legacy they’ll leave behind. With so many conservation options to consider, landowners need to have a working knowledge of the choices to protect their land in the near and long term. Landowners should identify their goals before embarking upon a conservation strategy. Once a conservation strategy is selected, then the implications of state and federal taxes can be explored. This publication reviews the most common land conservation and protection options.

Where there is a Will, there is a Way

Learn about the different types of wills, their purpose and preparation, when professional assistance is advised, and the pitfalls of self-prepared wills.

Where to Go for Forestry Assistance

For the North Carolina woodland owner there is technical and financial assistance available for the management of forest lands. Much of this help is free and can be obtained at county agricultural and forestry offices. If they cannot offer the services or information requested, they can refer you to the appropriate sources.

White-Tailed Deer

White-tailed deer occupy both forest and non-forest habitat types throughout the South. Deer usually prosper following fire, timber harvest, storms, or other events which produce new vegetative growth.

Why Leaves Change Color

Every year at this time we revel in the beauty of the trees, knowing well that it is only a fleeting pleasure. Before long the leaves will flutter away from their summer home and become a part of the rich carpet that covers the forest floor. Many people suppose that Jack Frost is responsible for the color change, but we now know that change in coloring is the result of chemical processes which take place in the tree as the season changes from summer to winter.

Wild Turkey

In the Southeast, wild turkeys require extensive forest lands. Three basic habitat types are required: 1) winter, 2) nesting, and 3) brood range. Good turkey habitat contains mature stands of mixed-hardwoods, relatively open understories, scattered clearings with distributed water, and freedom from disturbance.

Wild Turkey Management

The wild turkey is an important game animal in North Carolina and the Southeast. Recently, turkeys have made a comeback from low populations caused by excess hunting, habitat loss and domestic poultry diseases. Interest in wild turkey hunting also has increased accordingly during this time.

Wildlife and Forest Stewardship

Developing forestland to continually produce timber and provide wildlife habitat requires an active management plan. Forest stewardship, the process of managing all of the forest’s natural resources together, enables us to conserve our forest resources, including timber, wildlife, soil, and water. Forestry and wildlife management are not only compatible, they are interrelated. Managing for wildlife habitat can even improve forest productivity. This publication describes the basic concepts of management, showing how forestry operations affect wildlife habitat.

Wood Duck

Wood ducks depend upon forested wetland habitat for food and cover, although marshes are also used. Breeding range must have trees for nesting cavities and food near permanent freshwater lakes and streams. Brushy borders are important for nesting and brooding. Swampy areas with cypress and gum are premium for roosting. The best habitat contains mast-producing hardwoods that border streams and permanent fresh-water lakes. Many beaver ponds provide ideal wood duck habitat.

Woodland Wildlife Nest Boxes

In a perfect world there would be plenty of cavities and dead trees in forests for all the wildlife species that require them. However, young plantations and many natural timber stands often lack adequate cavities. This publication will focus on constructing and placing artificial nest boxes.

Woodscaping Your Woodlands

Many timberland owners value their land for more than just timber. They realize that the land can provide many benefits and that management plans can be designed to achieve these benefits. A North Carolina survey shows that aesthetics is the primary reason many people own timberland. Other benefits include recreation, timber production, water quality protection, and wildlife preservation. Improving small woodlands is a step-by-step process. This publication will help woodland owners become familiar with these steps, with the concepts of woodscaping, and with ways to integrate concerns for wildlife, beauty, and resource management in a manner that is compatible with current land-use activities.

Your Estate Plan—Where to Begin?

Identify your goals and gather needed information before you seek professional advice. Schedule a family meeting to begin shaping your objectives.

Zoning and Land Use Regulation of Forestry

This publication discusses how zoning and land use regulations impact the practice of forestry in North Carolina. The publication also explains planning jurisdictions, components of a zoning ordinance, and where to go for more information.

Learn more about the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service at their web site: