Butt Rot of Southern Hardwoods

Butt rot is the most serious cause of cull throughout the South, and affects all hardwood species. Defined as any decay at the base of a living tree, butt rot accounts for the loss of millions of board feet of southern hardwood timber annually.

Canker-Rots in Southern Hardwoods

Canker-rot fungi cause serious degrade and cull in southern hardwoods, especially the red oaks. Heartwood decay is the most serious form of damage, but the fungi also kill the cambium and decay the sapwood for as much as 3 feet above and below the entrance point into the tree.

Chestnut Blight

The chestnut blight, believed to have been brought into North America on Asiatic chestnut planting stock, is the most destructive forest disease known.

Dogwood Anthracnose and its Spread in the South

In the 15 years since it was first reported in the United States, dogwood anthracnose (caused by Discula destructive sp. nov.) has spread rapidly and caused serious losses among flowering dogwoods (Cornus florida L.), particularly in the South. Infection begins in leaves and spreads to twigs and branches, which die back. Main-stem infections cause cankers, which kill the trees. In the South, infection is most likely at higher elevations and on moist to wet sites. Shade increases risk of infection and mortality. High-value trees can be protected by mulching, pruning, and watering during droughts, and applying a fungicide.

Heart Rots of Appalachian Hardwoods

Decay in the heartwood of Appalachian hardwoods is a major source of loss in both volume and value of timber. This decay is caused by a variety of fungi which, by means of their windblown spores, enter the stem through open wounds. Once in the tree, the fungi feed upon the heartwood and in so doing bring about the condition known as decay or rot.

Identifying Tree Diseases

The disease profiles in this manual are organized by type and describe the hosts, symptoms and signs, life-cycle, and management of their respective diseases. Diagnostic photographs are included.

Nectria Canker of Hardwoods

Nectria canker is the most common canker of hardwood trees and one of the most serious diseases of our hardwood forests. Though the disease kills few trees, it has serious impact on the quantity and quality of lumber produced.

The North Carolina Forest Service Forest Health Handbook

The North Carolina Forest Service Forest Health Handbook describes some of the most important and/or common forest insects and diseases that damage trees in North Carolina. The main purpose of this manual is to provide basic information on threats to forest health, guidance in diagnosing tree disorders, and pest management recommendations. It is not intended as a final reference when dealing with any of the pests described. Rather, it should serve as a training aid and introductory text for those unfamiliar with the forest entomology and pathology fields, and as a quick reference guide for specific insect and diseases problems.

Nursery Diseases of Southern Pines

Forest tree nurseries in the South produce over 500 million seedlings each year. More that 95 percent of these are loblolly and slash pines.

Pine Insects, Diseases, and Wildfire

Potential losses to insect and disease pests and to wildfire are a major concern of the forest landowner and manager. Wildfires bum over one million acres of southern forests each year. While damage by wildfire is sudden and spectacular, it is not nearly as extensive as losses caused by insects and diseases. Losses caused by forest pests in the South exceed 3 billion cubic feet annually.

Walnut Anthracnose

Walnut antracnose, or leaf blotch as it is sometimes called, is a widespread and destructive disease of walnut species, particularly the eastern black walnut.

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