Crop Tree Release in Precommercial Hardwood Stands

The length of time necessary to grow quality hardwood trees is perhaps the greatest deterrent preventing private landowners from practicing hardwood management. Valuable trees such as white and red oaks, cherry, ash, yellow poplar and black walnut require decades to reach financial maturity. This publication describes how to accelerate growth rates in your young hardwood forest, which is vital to keeping your interest alive during the critical and dynamic time between seedling establishment and final harvest.

Dogwoods for American Gardens

Seventeen species of dogwood are native to the United States, with about 50 throughout the northern hemisphere of the world. The familiar species we call “flowering dogwood,” Cornus florida, is related to many others. This publication discusses those of ornamental value.

Farm and Forest Land Preservation with Conservation Easements

This publication is intended to provide basic information on conservation easements for landowners, community leaders, students and other interested individuals. It is not intended, and should not be used, to provide information to guide a particular conservation easement transaction or to substitute for the legal, financial and/or property appraisal planning or assistance that is needed for such transactions.

Forest Certification for Family-owned Forests: Who will certify and why?

The concept of forest certifi cation has grown as a tool to foster sustainable forest management. In order to examine certifi cation on family-owned forests, University of Tennessee Extension staff sent a survey to 1,050 landowners in three counties located in West Tennessee. Landowners with 40 or more acres of forest land were targeted for the study. The response rate was 51 percent. The results of the survey are summarized here.

Forest Management Strategies to Minimize the Impact of Gypsy Moth

Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an exotic insect that was introduced into the United States (Boston, MA) in 1869 from Europe as part of a silk-making experiment. Some larvae escaped and the moth spread throughout New England. Today the moth has migrated west and south to the Midwest (Ohio), the Lake states (Michigan and Wisconsin), the Mid-Atlantic states and through the southern Appalachians in Virginia and North Carolina.

Forest Practice Guidelines for Tennessee

Those involved in managing Tennessee forests have felt the need for a concise statement about forest practices in Tennessee. Although several sources provide information about Tennessee’s forests and appropriate forest practices, searching for information takes considerable time, and in some instances the sources are not readily available. These guidelines provide a ready, authoritative reference. This publication identifies appropriate forest management practices and informs the Tennessee forest landowner about making wise policy decisions and establishing long-range goals.

Forest Products: Measurements and Values

Success in buying and selling forest products depends on one’s knowledge of product measurement and ability to predict the current market value. When trees are harvested, they can be sold as whole trees, factory class sawlogs, construction class sawlogs, veneer logs, pulpwood and/or chipwood. Lumber is sold by its grade, which is determined by the size and location of defects. Each product from the forest has a particular method by which it is measured and its market value estimated. This publication explains common forest products measures used in Tennessee and how to estimate the current market value.

Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners

Soon, the gypsy moth will become a household word in Tennessee. This obnoxious new neighbor will be eating its way through our hardwood forests, leaving some forests bare.

Hardwood Plantations as an Investment

Deciding what to do with a piece of land is not always easy. One choice that should be considered is the planting of tree crops intended for the timber market.

The Hunters’ Guide to a Successful Hunt Lease

Most information concerning hunt leases is directed toward landowners and how they might find the “right” hunting group to earn additional income by leasing the hunting rights on their property. Unfortunately, little information is available to help you (the hunter) find and/or manage a hunt lease. Many hunting clubs have disbanded because of disputes with landowners, each other and/or neighboring clubs or groups. Still more have had high expectations for their club, only to be disappointed when attempts to manage the club and associated lands fail. If you fall into one of these categories, or plan to lease land for hunting in the near future, continue reading!

Identifying Oak Trees Native to Tennessee

Twenty distinct species of oak are native to Tennessee. Correctly identifying oaks can sometimes be challenging, even for well-trained foresters and botanists. This publication on identifying oak trees will introduce you to brief recognizable features or “BRFs.” BRFs (pronounced briefs) are easy to remember and will help you distinguish between different oak species. Using BRFs, this publication summarizes key features that will allow speedy and accurate identifi cation of Tennessee oaks.

Landowner’s Guide to Timber Sale Contracts

A written timber sale agreement or contract is generally the preferable and safest method of selling timber. A written contract is a legally binding document that protects both the buyer and the seller (the landowner) from misunderstandings that may develop in the absence of such an agreement. A contract will verify the seller’s ownership of the timber to be sold and the absence of liens or other liabilities. There is little legal recourse with verbal agreements. By negotiating a contract, both parties are likely to work out difficulties before they occur and be more pleased with the transaction.

Managing Oak Decline

Oak decline is a slow-acting disease complex that involves the interaction of predisposing factors such as climate, site quality and advancing tree age.

Oak Shelterwood: A Technique to Improve Oak Regeneration

The oak shelterwood method has been developed to enhance the regeneration potential of oaks growing on intermediate and high-quality sites. The method involves a well-timed mid-story removal to improve the number and vigor of oak advance regeneration and a subsequent overstory removal to facilitate regeneration of the stand.

Setting up the Books: A Forest Owner’s Guide to Capital Accounts and Record-keeping for Federal Income Tax Purposes

Forest owners have a number of federal income tax incentives available to them. Growing timber can be an income-producing activity, with the trees being considered a capital asset. Income from sales or other disposition of capital assets is then taxed at capital gains rates, as opposed to ordinary income tax rates. Investments in timber can be recovered through depletion deductions and reforestation expenses, qualifying for a tax credit. These provisions and others in the tax code encourage timber production, which is generally considered to be good for both the ecology and the economy. This publication will assist you in the first steps toward taking full advantage of these incentives.

The Southern Pine Beetle

The Southern Pine Beetle (SPB) inhabits Tennessee forests, and as forest landowners, we should be prepared to deal with the insect. Each year SPB causes thousands of dollars worth of damage to stands of Southern yellow pines, e.g., Loblolly, shortleaf and Virginia pines. Landowners living near or on their property can reduce losses to SPB by knowing the symptoms of a SPB attack, what to do about it and how to prevent it.

A Southern Pine Management Guide for Tennessee Landowners

Forestry’s impact upon Tennessee is inescapable. The wood products industry contributes more than $21 billion annually to the state economy and employs 184,000 workers.1 There are 14.4 million acres of forestland across the state, more than half the land base, and nearly 70 percent of these lands are owned by private, non-industrial landowners. Tennessee prides itself upon being one of the nation’s largest producers of hardwood timber, but 1.2 million acres of our forests are comprised of southern yellow pines.

Technical Guide to Crop Tree Release in Hardwood Forests

Crop tree release is a widely applicable silvicultural technique used to enhance the performance of individual trees. It offers flexibility in that it can be applied on small or large properties, and with certain modifications, it can be applied as a precommercial or commercial operation.

Treatments for Improving Degraded Hardwood Stands

Popular sentiment is that the small trees in the lower canopy when released will become the large trees of tomorrow. The largest and best trees are repeatedly harvested leaving the smaller, inferior trees to perpetuate the next stand. In reality, the trees being released are probably of similar age as those being cut. These released trees are incapable of continued growth with their small, spindly crowns. The consequence of removing only highly valued trees with each harvest is a hardwood resource with ever lower levels of economically valuable trees.

Tree Growth Characteristics

Trees are fascinating. The largest of all woody plants, they have well-defined stems that support a crown of leaves. The growth form varies by species and can be categorized. This publication has been created to provide professional foresters, arborists, students, Extension personnel, advanced homeowners and others a general understanding of how trees grow. Specifics will include primary vs. secondary growth, allocation of photosynthate, shoot growth patterns and crown shape.

Tree Planting Procedure for Small, Bare-Root Seedlings

Tree seedlings receive foremost care while growing in a managed nursery: fertile soil; ample moisture; and weed, insect and disease control. Lifting seedlings out of this comfort zone shocks them. If key steps are not carefully followed during handling and planting, mortality rate rises. Both hardwood and pine seedling survival is more likely if attention is given to the points made in this publication.

Trees for Wildlife

Tennessee is blessed with an abundance of forest land which provides a diversity of wildlife habitat. These habitats are composed of numerous grasses, vines, herbs, shrubs and trees. Many species of wildlife depend on certain species or types of trees and shrubs. Wildlife use trees as a food source (fruit, bark, leaves), as winter cover, for nesting, as perches and other uses. In this publication, the authors describe management practices for Tennessee landowners to consider when managing their woodlots for wildlife and timber.

Understanding Log Scales and Log Rules

A necessary step in determining the value of timber at the mill is establishing the estimated volume by standard scaling practices. Examples of scaling practices include measuring the weight of pulpwood to estimate the volume and measuring the dimensions of hardwood sawlogs, along with applying a log rule to determine how much lumber can be sawn from the log. This publication describes common methods of log scaling and log rules used in Tennessee.

Wood Identification for Hardwood and Softwood Species Native to Tennessee

This publication provides information on how to identify wood of several species common to Tennessee by using a hand-magnifying lens. Included in this publication are a wood identification key for some common Tennessee species, a list of key specie characteristics and a list of companies that sell wood identification sample sets.

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