Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)

Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise-tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.

Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)

Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.

A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners

As a private forest landowner, you are a vital link in the sustainability of Virginia’s forest resources. Your land provides many benefits to all Virginians, including wood products, wildlife habitat, clean air and water, and recreational opportunities. Because forest landowners like you own and control three-quarters of the state’s forestland, the decisions you make regarding your forest today will impact the quality of Virginia’s forests for many years. The purpose of this publication is to provide you with some basic information on forest management and specifics on how timber harvesting should be conducted to ensure the sustainability of your forest resources.

Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)

Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.

Invasive Plants — A Horticultural Perspective

Invasive nonnative (nonindigenous) plants are the subject of a considerable amount of attention and debate. Stories about invasive plants are now common in the popular media. As purchasers of nonindigenous plants that have the potential to invade natural areas, consumers are links in the distribution chain of invasive plants. Other links are those who import, propagate, transport, and sell nonindigenous plants. Ultimately, the result is a potential impact on our natural environment.

Landowner’s Guide to Wildlife Abundance Through Forestry

Your woodlands offer the promise of immediate and long-term benefits. Managed forests produce yields of timber and wildlife. Land with abundant game may be leased to hunting clubs for as much or even more than its taxes or provide the base for a hunting preserve business. Other recreation-based sources of income, such as camping or horseback riding, will be made more attractive on properties managed for wildlife. But economic considerations, though important, may not be your main reason for owning the land. To have a place where wildlife lives and can be enjoyed may be your primary desire. Land that has productive wildlife habitat is a pleasure to behold. The satisfaction of working with nature to increase wildlife abundance, and at the same time, of leaving to the next generation property of increasing economic and aesthetic values can be yours through careful but decisive management.

A Landowner’s Guide to Working with Sportsmen in Virginia

Private landowners, including forest industries, control access to 50 percent of the land suitable for outdoor recreation in Virginia. In the Old Dominion there are about 500,000 licensed hunters and over one million anglers. In addition, the numbers of hikers, canoeists, picnickers, campers, berry pickers, and bird watchers are growing each year. Many landowners report undesirable levels of trespass, litter, property damage, and game law violations. Consequently, owners of private lands suitable for public outdoor recreation are increasingly reluctant to permit public access to those lands.

Learning to Live with Coyotes in Metropolitan Areas

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are 35-to-40 pound doglike mammals that have entered metropolitan areas of Virginia. Although coyotes may help reduce the numbers of other problematic animals, we must respect their wild nature while learning to co-exist with them.

Measuring Site Index

Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests.

Measuring Standing Trees and Logs

Timber may be sold as stumpage (trees before they are cut) or as harvested products (sawlogs, veneer logs, or pulpwood). If trees are sold as harvested products, the sale is customarily based upon measured volume. Trees marketed as stumpage may be sold by boundary, a measured estimate of stand volume, or individual tree measurements. Regardless of the price offered, a purchaser always estimates timber volume in a stand before buying it. In contrast, the seller too often has no idea what volume of timber is being sold. This publication explains how you can make your own tree or log volume measurements.

Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!

Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.

Rabies: Its Ecology, Control, and Treatment

Rabies is a disease caused by a virus in the Rhabdoviridae family that affects the central nervous system of the infected host. All mammals, including domestic and non-domestic animals and humans, can be infected with the virus.

Scale Insects

Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.

Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners

Shortleaf pine, also known as shortleaf yellow, southern yellow, oldfield, shortstraw, or Arkansas soft pine, is one of the four most important commercial conifers in the southeastern United States. In Arkansas and Louisiana, shortleaf pine is the primary timber species. In Virginia, however, the acreage of shortleaf pine has steadily decreased since 1940 despite its adaptability to many different soil types and its value as a timber species.

Wet and Dry Sites

To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.

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